War Arsenal of Ivan The Terrible Found Close To Moscow

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During his time in power, Ivan the Terrible expanded Russia’s power and totally altered the political structure. He controlled the country by ensuring total fear and terror within his people, especially the high nobles. This was carried out via regular military warfare, and historians believethey have located an extensive war arsenal that could have been intended for use by Ivan.

The store of weaponry was located during construction, close to Zvenigorod, a small town near Moscow and contains an amazing variety of military equipment – weaponry, and much more.

During the time they were stored underground, the area was one that Ivan had ordered be bought under control by the military. The scientists belive that the cache may have belonged to one of the officers of these campaigns.

This gives us a great concept how a Russian officer may have prepared for starting a military campaign. Each noble officer would have a personal weapons cache in readiness. This dig lets us view the preparations carried by the officer elite of the army at this time.

states Dr. Asya Engovatova, from the Russian Academy of Sciences,

The most incredible weapons located are the spiked helmets, close to undamaged by rust and still located in material lined leather boxes. They were was usually worn by knights and may have been coated in gold and silver.

The scientists believe the cache still exists only as the house that they were located under likely was burnt prior to the weapons and armor being removed for battle.

Worlds Largest Sapphire

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The huge “Star of Adam” was located in Sri Lanka, and is believed to be the largest sapphire ever found. It weighs 1,404 carats, which is about 280g. But how could it grow so large?

Sapphire is a bright blue gem mineral and a type of corundum (aluminium oxide). It is very hard, which is important in understanding its location in countries like Sri Lanka.

The Star of Adam sapphire is a beautiful example of a “star sapphire”. It seems to have a 6 point star inside the stone. This is due to light reflection from small crystals trapped within the sapphire as it grew.

The gems are found in old river sediments. Due to the hardness the sapphires survived as big pebbles and crystals.

The Star of Adam would likely have been formed inside rocks and granites in the highlands. The have been dated as close to 2 billion years old.

The temperature and pressure would have altered very gradually over many millions of years, which is how the sapphire was able to get so large.

The sapphire is privately owned.

Leonardo Da Vinci Bridge Is Being Constructed From Ice

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Leonardo da Vinci’s Golden Horn Bridge was designed in 1502. It’s finally being constructed, however as the amazing Renaissance figure originally wanted the structure to cross the Bosphorus River in Istanbul, its construction is actually occuring in Juuka, Finland. Also instead of building the bridge from stone, as per the original plans, the engineers running the construction are using ice and paper.

Crossing a 35 meter (115 feet) span over a quarry the “Bridge in Ice” will be the largest ice bridge ever built and is expected to be finished by the 13th of February. This may vary as it is dependant on the weather, with the possibility of unusual heat increasing the possibility of the bridge not freezing fast enough to hit the deadline.

However the conditions have been ideal to date, with temperatures in Juuka around the -30°C (-22°F) range since the project started on December 28, 2015. To build the structure, about 150 university students from the Eindhoven University of Technology are building in around the clock, ensuring heavy equipment is not left to freeze.

The structure is being built using ice and paper fibers, which esure it is about three times stronger and 20 times more flexible than normal ice. The team are applying very thin layers of the water and paper onto the surface of a huge inflatable mould, at which point it the water freezes instantly. Once there is sufficient stability for the ice to stand on its own, the balloon like mould is taken away.

Once complete, the structure will be open to the public. The team plans to drive a car over the structure during the opening. When the ice finally melts, the paper will be utilized as compost.

Why The Romans Were Not As Hygienic As You May Believe

image-20160105-28974-1geilo9Before the Romans, the Greeks was the only civilisation to have used toilets. However by the height of the Roman Empire during the 3rd century AD the Romans had brought sanitation to most of their lands, reaching across western and southern Europe, what is now the Middle East as well as North Africa. Their unique technologies included huge public toilets, town sewers, clean water flowing through aqueducts, truely elegant public bathing and regulations that required towns to take trash from the roads.

Modern research has revealed that toilets and clean water lower the real risks of human stomach infections by viruses, bacteria as well as water bourne parasites. We may expect that health would improve due to these measures being introduced, when compared to earlier civilisations, or other world locations.

However unexpectedly, there was not a drop in parasites as a result of poor sanitation. There was actually a slow increase. This suggests Roman hygenic technologies such as latrines and sewers were ineffective in improving gastrointestinal health.

Texts from the period discuss that human waste was utilised as a fertilizer, and so parasite eggs would have been able to contaminate these foods and permitted the reinfection of the people when they consumed the food.

A further study also suggests that Roman baths had no defined positive effect on a populations health when it comes to ectoparasites.

The unexpected archaeological evidence does not convey any positive health benefit from Roman sanitation, but alternatively, that expanding Romanisation led to a rise in some parasite species as a result of trade and migration through the empire.

Long Lost Honduran Town To Be Excavated In the Rainforest

jungleSince the Spanish began exploring the strange jungle of the Southern Americas during the 15th century, stories about lost cities such as El Dorado have captivated the imagination. A team of academics has released plans to start excavating a “lost city” in the Honduras, a city which may end the centuries of such stories.

Located in the dense jungles of the isolated La Mosquitia area, the ruins location makes it a possible candidate as the “White City.” This story became known during the early 1900’s when archaeologists working in the region heard tales about an amazing white building in the deep jungle, where local tribes had hidden during the Spanish invasions.

Historians soon started scouring the records in looking for references to this jungle house, and many believed they had located it in a report concerning the well known conquistador Hernán Cortés (1526). Later in the 1920s a small number of American historians began locating artifacts from La Mosquitia, postulating they may have been owned by the long-lost civilization that once lived in the region.

In 2012 a group of scientists participated in a documentary to attempt to find the town, which started with the carrying out of an aerial survey of a valley in La Mosquitia. When the images were analyzed, evidence of unexplained large plazas, earthen pyramids, and other features were located.

The researchers have since traveled to the site of the ruins for theand explored the site, locating many artifacts.

While the scientists are not suggesting that this discovery is the famous”White City,” they are nevertheless exited by the prospects of exploring this previously unknown civilization in much more detail in the future.

Lost Malaysia Airlines Search Locates 19th Century Shipwreck

mh370dIt’s almost 2 years since the unusual disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370. While no planes have been located to date, the Australian branch of the search has unexpecedly located a lost 19th-century shipwreck.

The ship was located on December 19, 2015, lying in the Indian Ocean by the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB). Shortly after they captured some high-resolution sonar images, which have now been released.

With the assistance of the Western Australian Museum, they assessed the ship as either a steel or iron ship from the early 1800s.

This isn’t the first unexpected item located which searching for the MH370 plane. In May of 2015, the ATSB located another shipwreck. Seven months previously they also released footage of a range of underwater volcanoes and canyons.

Authorities are only about 75% complete and while the search continues, they are likely to abandon the search before the end of 2016 unless there is success soon.

The Top 62 Richest Are As Wealthy As The Poorest 3.5 Billion

Protesters attend a rally and march demanding Los Angeles Times not be sold to the Koch Brothers, portraits of which are held, May 23, 2013 in Beverly Hills, California. Charles and Bill Koch have donated millions to various conservative causes. AFP PHOTO /JOE KLAMAR (Photo credit should read JOE KLAMAR/AFP/Getty Images)

All the cash in the world is becoming even more concentrated in the power of only a small number of people, a report released recently claims.

Only 62 super-wealthy, mostly white males; including Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, the Koch Brothers and the Walmart family own as much as the lower half of the world.

The wealth for the richest 62 has gone up an amazing 44% since 2010, to $1.76 trillion. At the same time the wealth of the lower half of the world decreased by 41%.

Most of the amazing increase of wealth is related to the booming share market, as Credit Suisse stated in the Global Wealth Report in 2015.

Oxfam used this report in its analysis leading to the determination that global inequality had summited to a new level. That the wealthiest 1% of the world now own half of the world’s wealth.

It is not simply the share market driving the amazing rise in inequality. The Oxfam report also states that tax dodging is a major factor and pushes governments around the world to address tax avoidance carried out by wealthy individuals and companies.

Is Food Bad Once a Fly Has Landed On It?

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It only takes one fly to land on your packed lunch to make you concerned about what waste may have been left on your food.So do you throw the food out?

On most occasions seeing a fly land on your food doesn’t mean you must dispose of the food. While flies can carry parasites, bacteria and viruses one touchdown is not going make the average person ill.

Flies that are out of sight and walking about on your food for extended periods – vomiting and pooping on food are more of a worry. The more time goes by, the higher the risk of germs being left behind and the higher the chance of illness becomes.

Having loads of flies can be a worry but the risk is usually higher in country areas, where there is a higher likelihood the flies will be in contact with dead animals and waste.

What can you do?

  1. Ensure your food is covered when flies are about.
  2. Screening windows and doors.
  3. Ensure bins are cleaned regularly and garbage is covered
  4. Insecticidal surface sprays around bin areas
  5. The old school fly-swat works great