War Arsenal of Ivan The Terrible Found Close To Moscow


During his time in power, Ivan the Terrible expanded Russia’s power and totally altered the political structure. He controlled the country by ensuring total fear and terror within his people, especially the high nobles. This was carried out via regular military warfare, and historians believethey have located an extensive war arsenal that could have been intended for use by Ivan.

The store of weaponry was located during construction, close to Zvenigorod, a small town near Moscow and contains an amazing variety of military equipment – weaponry, and much more.

During the time they were stored underground, the area was one that Ivan had ordered be bought under control by the military. The scientists belive that the cache may have belonged to one of the officers of these campaigns.

This gives us a great concept how a Russian officer may have prepared for starting a military campaign. Each noble officer would have a personal weapons cache in readiness. This dig lets us view the preparations carried by the officer elite of the army at this time.

states Dr. Asya Engovatova, from the Russian Academy of Sciences,

The most incredible weapons located are the spiked helmets, close to undamaged by rust and still located in material lined leather boxes. They were was usually worn by knights and may have been coated in gold and silver.

The scientists believe the cache still exists only as the house that they were located under likely was burnt prior to the weapons and armor being removed for battle.

Worlds Largest Sapphire


The huge “Star of Adam” was located in Sri Lanka, and is believed to be the largest sapphire ever found. It weighs 1,404 carats, which is about 280g. But how could it grow so large?

Sapphire is a bright blue gem mineral and a type of corundum (aluminium oxide). It is very hard, which is important in understanding its location in countries like Sri Lanka.

The Star of Adam sapphire is a beautiful example of a “star sapphire”. It seems to have a 6 point star inside the stone. This is due to light reflection from small crystals trapped within the sapphire as it grew.

The gems are found in old river sediments. Due to the hardness the sapphires survived as big pebbles and crystals.

The Star of Adam would likely have been formed inside rocks and granites in the highlands. The have been dated as close to 2 billion years old.

The temperature and pressure would have altered very gradually over many millions of years, which is how the sapphire was able to get so large.

The sapphire is privately owned.

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